Proceedings of the International Multiconference on Computer Science and Information Technology

Volume 4

October 12–14, 2009. Mrągowo, Poland

ISSN 1896-7094
ISBN 978-83-60810-22-4
IEEE Catalog Number CFP0964E

Preface

4th International Symposium Advances in Artificial Intelligence and Applications

  • A Novel Rotation Invariant Retina Identification Based on the Sketch of Vessels Using Angular Partitioning
    54 Human identification, Retina identification, Sketch, and Angular partitioning. Wafa Barkhoda, Fardin Akhlaqian Tab, Mehran Deljavan Amiri, pages 3 – 6. Show abstract In this paper, we propose a new retina identifica­tion system using angular partitioning. In this algorithm, first all of the images are normalized in a preprocessing step. Then, the blood vessels’ pattern is extracted from retina images and a morphological thinning process is applied on the extracted pat­tern. After thinning, a feature vector based on the angular par­titioning of the pattern image is extracted from the blood ves­sels’ pattern. The extracted features are rotation and scale in­variant and robust against translation. In the next stage, the ex­tracted feature vector is analyzed using 1D discrete Fourier transform and the Manhattan metric is used to measure the closeness of the feature vector to have a compression on them. Experimental results on a database, including 360 retina images obtained from 40 subjects, demonstrated an average true identi­fication accuracy rate equal to 98 percent for the proposed sys­tem. Keywords—Human identification, Retina identification, Sketch, and Angular partitioning.
  • Fuzzy Edge Detection Based on Pixels Gradient and Standard Deviation Values
    53 Edge Detection; Fuzzy Logic; Fuzzy Decision System; Gradient, and Standard Deviation. Wafa Barkhoda, Fardin Akhlaqian Tab, Om-kolsoom Shahryari, pages 7 – 10. Show abstract This paper presents a new fuzzy based edge detec­tion algorithm. Each different edge detection method has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example each method detects part of real edges and also some unreal edges. To re­duce this effect we have used two different source of informa­tion and a fuzzy system to decide about whether each pixel is edge or not.
  • A New RBF Network Based Sliding-Mode Control of Nonlinear Systems
    134 RBF network, Stable Learning Rate, Sliding Mode Control, Online System identification and control. Selami Beyhan, Musa Alci, pages 11 – 16. Show abstract In this paper, a novel radial basis function (RBF) neural network is proposed and applied successively for online stable identification and control of nonlinear discrete-time systems. The proposed RBF network is a one hidden layer neural network (NN) with its all parameters being adaptable. The RBF network parameters are optimized by gradient descent method with stable learning rate whose stable convergence behavior is proved by Lyapunov stability approach. The parameter update is succeeded by a new strategy adapted from Levenberg-Marquardth (LM) method. The aim of construction of the proposed RBF network is to combine power of the networks which have different mapping abilities. These networks are auto-regressive exogenous input model, nonlinear static NN model and nonlinear dynamic NN model. To apply the model to control of the nonlinear systems, a known sliding mode control is applied to generate input of the system. From simulations; it is sown that the proposed network is an alternative model for identification and control of nonlinear systems with accurate results.Keywords—RBF network, stable learning rate, sliding mode control, online system identification and control.
  • Semi-supervised Word Sense Disambiguation Based on Weakly Controlled Sense Induction
    157 word sense disambiguation, semi supervised methods, machine learning Bartosz Broda, Maciej Piasecki, pages 17 – 24. Show abstract Word Sense Disambiguation in text is still a difficult problem as the best supervised methods require laborious and costly manual preparation of training data. On the other hand, the unsupervised methods express significantly lower accuracy and produce results that are not satisfying for many application. The goal of this work is to develop a model of Word Sense Disambiguation which minimises the amount of the required human intervention, but still assigns senses that come from a manually created lexical semantics resource, i.e.,\ a wordnet. The proposed method is based on clustering text snippets including words in focus. Next, for each cluster we found a core, the core is labelled with a word sense by a human and finally is used to produce a classifier. Classifiers, constructed for each word separately, are applied to text. A performed comparison showed that the approach is close in its precision to a fully supervised one tested on the same data for Polish, and is much better than a baseline of the most frequent sense selection. Possible ways for overcoming the limited coverage of the approach are also discussed in the paper.
  • Minimizing overlapping regions for double detectors approach
    77 negative selection, detectors coverage Andrzej Chmielewski, Sławomir T. Wierzchoń, pages 25 – 30. Show abstract The quality of an immune-based negative selection algorithm hardly depends on quality of generated detectors. First, they should cover a nonself space in sufficient degree to guarantee high detection rates. Second, the duration of classification is proportional to the cardinality of detector's set. A time reaction for anomalies is especially important in on-line classification systems, e.g. spam and intrusion detection systems. Therefore, detectors should be sufficiently general (to reduce their number), as well as sufficiently specific (to detect many intruders). In this paper, we present an improved approach using double, real-valued and binary, detectors, designed to meet above stated requirements. We consider two version of proposed algorithms, which differs from each other at the degree of allowed overlapping regions. However, what is confirmed by presented experiments, too aggressive minimization of overlapping areas can be, not only computationally complex, but it provides lower detection rates also.
  • The Techniques for Face Recognition with Support Vector Machines
    41 face recognition, support vector machines, discrete wavelet transformation Igor Frolov, Rauf Sadykhov, pages 31 – 36. Show abstract The development of automatic visual control system is a very important research topic in computer vision. This face identification system must be robust to the various quality of the images such as light, face expression, glasses, beards, moustaches etc. We propose using the wavelet transformation algorithms for reduction the source data space. We have realized the method of the expansion of the values of pixels to the whole intensity range and the algorithm of the equalization of histogram to adjust image intensity values. The support vector machines (SVM) technology has been used for the face recognition in our work.
  • Classification based on the highest impact jumping emerging patterns
    38 Jumping Emerging Patterns, classification, aCGH Tomasz Gambin, Krzysztof Walczak, pages 37 – 42. Show abstract In this paper, we propose a new classification algorithm based on Jumping Emerging Patterns (JEPs), that have the highest impact on classification accuracy. The core idea of our method is the application of a new “REAL/ALL ” coefficient, which is used to compare the discriminating power among various groups of JEPs. The efficacy of the proposed approach was confirmed by tests performed on both synthetic and real data sets. The results show that our method may significantly improve the classification performance in comparison to other classifiers based on JEPs.
  • Using Apriori-like Algorithms for Spatio-Temporal Pattern Queries
    78 data mining, spatio-temporal pattern,trajectory, Marcin Gorawski, Pawel Jureczek, pages 43 – 48. Show abstract In this paper we present a way to construct Apri­ori-like algorithms for mining spatio-tempral patterns. An Apri­ori-like algorithm is created on the basis of a candidate generator and a suitable comparing function. In order to avoid ambiguity, a classification of basic and extended comparing func­tions is also introduced. Moreover, some of these functions are characteristic for spatial searching only. In addition, the com­paring functions and the Apriori-like algorithms com­plement each other. The comparing functions can also extend the area of data exploration.
  • Functions on Probabilistic Graphical Models
    37 Belief propagation, probabilistic graphical models Tomasz Ignac, Uli Sorger, pages 49 – 56. Show abstract Probabilistic graphical models are tools that are used to represent the probability distribution of a vector of random variables X=(X_1,…,X_N). In this paper we introduce functions f(x_1,…,x_N) defined over the given vector. These functions also are random variables. The main result of the paper is an algorithm for finding the expected value and other moments for some classes of f(x_1,…,x_N). The possible applications of that algorithm are discussed. Specifically, we use it to analyze the entropy of X and to compute the relative entropy of two probability distributions of the same vector X. Finally, open problems and possible topics of future researches are discussed.
  • Combination of Independent Kernel Density Estimators in Classification
    158 kernel denisty estimation, classification, density estimators combination Mateusz Kobos, pages 57 – 63. Show abstract A new classification algorithm based on combination of two independent kernel density estimators per class is proposed. Each estimator is characterized by a different bandwidth parameter. Combination of the estimators corresponds to viewing the data with different “resolutions”. The intuition behind the method is that combining different views on the data yields a better insight into the data structure; therefore, it leads to a better classification result. The bandwidth parameters are adjusted automatically by the L-BFGS-B algorithm to minimize the cross-validation classification error. Results of experiments on benchmark data sets confirm the algorithm's applicability.
  • Decision Making by Fuzzy Deontological Statements
    199 computer systems, decision making, deontological statements, domain ontologies, relative decision assessment Juliusz Kulikowski, pages 65 – 73. Show abstract An approach to computer-assistant decision making problem is presented in the paper. The recommendations of actions that can be undertaken by an user in order to reach a desired goal are presented in the form of deontological statements. The necessary domain knowledge is provided to the system in the form of a domain ontology. The recommended actions are relatively evaluated by a system of semi-ordering relations suggested by the user. The semi-ordering relations constitute partial selection criteria of qualitative and/or quantitative type. Final solution is based on examination of an evaluation matrix. The method is illustrated by examples.
  • Kohonen’s Neural Network and Evolutionary Algorithms in Searching for Financial Investment Strategy
    161 evolutionary algorithm, Konen's neural network investment strategy Urszula Markowska-Kaczmar, Krzysztof Rosół, pages 75 – 80. Show abstract In the paper the method of creating investment strategies for a profitable trading system is described. This method is based on artificial intelligence techniques and technical analysis tools. Created strategies describe the investment signal and amount of cash or stocks, which should be used at a given moment. The carried out experiments allow to find values of parameters for generating investment strategies and to define an influence of provisions. An important element of this work is to check the possibility of investment strategies generalization. The possibility of generalization determines a new direction of the research on the model. On this basis, in future the stock which is currently worth to invest or this one which is better to sell could be identified.
  • Trading rule discovery in Warsaw Stock Exchange using coevolutionary algorithms
    133 financial data mining, trading rule extraction, coevolutionary algorithms Paweł B. Myszkowski, Łukasz Rachwalski, pages 81 – 88. Show abstract This paper presents an application of coevolutionary algorithms to rule discovery on stock market. We used genetic programming techniques with coevolution in financial data mining process. There were tested a various approaches to include coevolution aspects in task of build trading rule (buy and sell decision). Trading rules are based on technical and fundamental indicators included in decision tree and were tested on Warsaw Stock Exchange historical data.
  • EVM: lifelong reinforcement and self-learning
    96 reinforcement learning, self-learning, computational architectures Mariusz Nowostawski, pages 89 – 98. Show abstract Open-ended systems and unknown dynamical environments present challenges to the traditional machine learning systems, and in many cases traditional methods are not applicable. Lifelong reinforcement learning is a special case of dynamic (process-oriented) reinforcement learning. Multi-task learning is a methodology that exploits similarities and patterns across multiple tasks. Both can be successfully used for open-ended systems and automated learning in unknown environments. Due to its unique characteristics, lifelong reinforcement presents both challenges and potential capabilities that go beyond traditional reinforcement learning methods. In this article, we present the basic notions of lifelong reinforcement learning, introduce the main methodologies, applications and challenges. We also introduce a new model of lifelong reinforcement based on the Evolvable Virtual Machine architecture (EVM).
  • Fuzzy Numbers Calculations as Help in Fatigue Reliability Estimation
    125 calculations on fuzzy numbers, ordered fuzzy numbers, fatigue analysis, fatigue reliability Piotr Prokopowicz, Tomasz Bednarek, Włodzimierz Sosnowski, pages 99 – 104. Show abstract One of such problems is increasing safety requirements of structures. It induces necessity to take into consideration the random nature of variables in the fatigue design. Analysis of real structures and their fatigue properties is a big computational problem. In this paper we present how we can use fuzzy numbers as tool for fatigue analysis of structures. The data used to describe a problem—the probability of failure for critical locations of hydraulic cylinder—are statistical. The main problem is to estimate critical areas of cylinder. Given probabilistic data were used in order to design a membership function of fuzzy number. Thus further calculations could be done with use specific operations defined on a specific model of fuzzy numbers—ordered fuzzy numbers.The calculation of fatigue life using fuzzy numbers set is illustrated with analysis of hydraulic cylinders. Damage mechanics approach is used in fatigue analysis with fuzzy numbers set of hydraulic cylinder.
  • Improved (Non)fixed TSS methods for promoter prediction
    127 DNA, promoter prediction, pattern matching, machine learning Konrad Rymczak, Olgierd Unold, pages 105 – 108. Show abstract Recognizing bacterial promoters is an important step towards understanding gene regulation. In this paper, we address the problem of predicting the location of promoters and their transcription start sites (TSSs) in Escherichia coli . Our approaches to TSS prediction are based upon fixed and none fixed TSS algorithms. Introduced improvements significantly bumped up the efficiency of the algorithms.
  • Fast Automatic Speech Recognition Training with Phoneme Coverage Balancing and Late Speaker Prototype Selection
    141 speech recognition system, speaker adaptation, supervised adaptation, acoustic models, clustering Jerzy Sas, Bogumila Hnatkowska, pages 109 – 115. Show abstract The novel approach to speaker adaptation within speech recognition system basing on late clustering of prototype speakers is presented. For a new speaker the speaker prototype is created dynamically on the basis of selected remembered prototypes that are similar enough to the new one. The training utterances are prepared in an optimized way to decrease training duration without negative influence on recognition accuracy.Keywords—speech recognition system, speaker adaptation, supervised adaptation, acoustic models, clustering
  • Intrusion Detection in Web Applications: Evolutionary Approach
    117 gene expression programming, security, WEB, SQL, database Jaroslaw Skaruz, Franciszek Seredynski, pages 117 – 123. Show abstract A novel approach based on applying a modern metaheuristic Gene Expression Programming (GEP) to detecting web application attacks is presented in the paper. This class of attacks relates to malicious activity of an intruder against applications, which use a database for storing data. The application uses SQL to retrieve data from the database and web server mechanisms to put them in a web browser. A poor implementation allows an attacker to modify SQL statements originally developed by a programmer, which leads to stealing or modifying data to which the attacker has not privileges. While the attack consists in modification of SQL queries sent to the database, they are the only one source of information used for detecting attacks. Intrusion detection problem is transformed into classification problem, which the objective is to classify SQL queries between either normal or malicious queries. GEP is used to find a function used for classification of SQL queries. Experimental results are presented on the basis of SQL queries of different length. The findings show that the efficiency of detecting SQL statements representing attacks depends on the length of SQL statements. Additionally we studied the impact of classification threshold on the obtained results.
  • Trust Propagation - Cardinality-Based Approach
    118 trust network, trust propagation, IFS, intuitionistic fuzzy sets, relative cardinality of IFS Anna Stachowiak, pages 125 – 129. Show abstract The article deals with a problem of modelling and propagating trust in trust networks (social networks, recommender systems, integrating systems). We briefly recall some of the solutions and approaches proposed by other authors and we focus on a trust model based on IFS theory (Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy set theory). Then we present a draft of a method of calculating trust propagation with a use of a relative cardinality of IFS.
  • MAGMA - Efficient Method for Image Annotation in Low Dimensional Feature Space Based on Multivariate Gaussian Models
    163 Automatic image annotation Michal Stanek, Bartosz Broda, Halina Kwasnicka, Mariusz Paradowski, pages 131 – 138. Show abstract Automatic image annotation is crucial for keyword-based image retrieval. There is a trend focusing on utilization of machine learning techniques, which learn statistical models from annotated images and apply them to generate annotations for unseen images. In this paper we propose MAGMA—new image auto-annotation method based on building simple Multivariate Gaussian Models for images. All steps of the method are thoroughly described. We argue that MAGMA is efficient way of automatic image annotation, which performs best in low dimensional feature space. We compare proposed method with state-of-the art method called Continuous Relevance Model on two image databases. We show that in most of the experiments simple parametric modeling of probability density function used in MAGMA significantly outperforms reference method.
  • Arabic Named Entity Extraction: A Local Grammar-Based Approach
    33 local grammar, Arabic named entity extraction, Computational linguistics Hayssam Traboulsi pages 139 – 143. Show abstract The local grammar approach was first used to dis­cuss recursive phrases that are commonly found in specialist lit­erature like biochemistry and then extended to extract time, date and address expressions from letters. It has recently been applied to extract person names from English, Chinese, French, Korean, Portuguese, and Turkish news texts. This paper shows that this approach can also be used to extract person names from Arabic counterparts.

First International Workshop on Business Intelligence

  • Ontological Learning Assistant for Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining
    73 Knowledge Discovery, Data Mining, Ontologies, Case Based Reasoning, Meta-Learning Marcin Choinski, Jaroslaw A. Chudziak, pages 147 – 155. Show abstract In this paper we propose a concept of Ontological Learning Assistant (OLA)—an ontology-based KDD. Support Environment (KDDSE) platform for carrying out knowledge discovery. The concept is based on the critical analysis of our state-of-the-art study in intelligent KDD support utilizing ontologies. We emphasize the fundamental role of knowledge transfer and domain and technology experts cooperation. OLA's main goal is to provide means of their mutual understanding and leverage the domain and technology knowledge by the use of ontologies.
  • Rapid Modeling and Analysis with QGeNIe
    84 Bayesian networks, modeling, strategic planning Marek Druzdzel, pages 157 – 164. Show abstract QGeNIe is a specialized interface to GeNIe, a decision modeling environment developed by the Decision Systems Laboratory, University of Pittsburgh. QGeNIe allows for rapid construction of graphical models in which all variables are propositional, almost no numerical probabilities are displayed at the user interface, and degrees of truth of propositions are displayed by means of node colors. All numerical parameters, such as prior probability distributions over variables and strengths of influences between variables, are entered by means of graphical sliders. While the underlying computations are all numerical and based on Bayesian updating, QGeNIe makes the impression of a qualitative, “order of magnitude” type system that aids rapid model building and an approximate analysis of systems.
  • Business Rules Design Methods for Business Process Management
    147 Knowledge Representation, Business Process Management, Business Rules, XTT approach Grzegorz J. Nalepa, Maria A. Mach, pages 165 – 170. Show abstract The paper deals with the problem of designing business rules (BR) for the business process modeling (BPM). It shows the role of knowledge in BPM and points out the issues that arise from the link between knowledge and the BPM. It presents the challenges of BR modeling, shows some disadvantages of existing and commonly used methods. As a solution, a method based on the XTT approach is outlined and discussed.
  • Utilization of Knowledge Management for Service Business Processes Improvement
    13 knowledge management, service business process, system application and experience Bernd Stieger, Markus Aleksy, pages 171 – 175. Show abstract In today’s business instant availability of up-to-date information is a vital prerequisite for decision making and the execution of many job tasks. Especially in service business, service job experience and information about the customer as well as the installed site equipment are key factors to deliver services efficiently and with high quality. In many cases supporting information is stored in different back-end systems and it needs to be retrieved, aggregated and presented on demand. These requirements play a crucial role for contact centers, which have the first contacts with customers, as well as for the field service engineers, who have the closest contacts with the customers during executions of service jobs at the customers’ sites. In this paper, a typical service process is presented and a case study is used to show how knowledge management technologies can provide improvement possibilities for a service business company.

Computational Linguistics – Applications

  • Graphical, type-checking dependency tree editor
    27 Dependency grammar, Treebanks, Type-checking Tomas By, pages 179 – 184. Show abstract The process of marking up the syntactic structure of the sentences in a corpus is facilitated by having a graphical tree editor. A type specification constrains the nature of acceptable trees, and visual indication of non-conformities makes corrections easy. Projectivity checking can also be a useful way to notice errors, depending on the linguistic design of the tree type specification. A small test corpus has been marked up using this method. Only the English language has been investigated so far, and the tool takes no other input than the type specification and the corpus. Adding a lexical database is an obvious way to make it more generally useful.
  • A TimeML Compliant TimEx Tagger for Italian
    113 temporal expression, detection, bracketing, Tommaso Caselli, Felice Dell'Orletta, Irina Prodanof, pages 185 – 192. Show abstract In this paper we will present an ongoing research on the development of a temporal expression tagger and normalizer for Italian, compliant with the TimeML specifications. Similarly to other existing temporal expression taggers, the system is rule-based and benefits from an extensive corpus study to identify the reserved time words. However, it differs from other systems since it implements WordNet-based semantic relations between temporal expressions in order to improve its accuracy. So far, the system reports an F-measure of 86.41% for the subtask of temporal expression detection and bracketing.
  • Computing the Hierarchy of the Articulatory Dimensions
    116 Phonetics, hierarchy of articulatory dimensions, phonetic typology, phonetic grammar Krzysztof Dyczkowski, Norbert Kordek, Paweł Nowakowski, Krzystzof Stroński, pages 193 – 197. Show abstract The aim of this paper is to present the notion of a hierarchy of articulatory dimensions and its application in phonetic typology. To calculate the hierarchies a computer application was designed, and preliminary counts were carried out on the phonetic repertories of Chinese, Hindi and Polish. The theoretical foundation of the calculus is based on earlier research referring to the axiomatic theory of phonetic grammar .
  • Using Natural Language to Improve the Generation of Model Transformation in Software Design
    111 Lexical Semantics, NLP techniques applications, POS tagging, Dependency rules, Software Modelling, Model Generation Jean-Rémi Falleri, Violaine Prince, Mathieu Lafourcade, Michel Dao, Marianne Huchard, pages 199 – 206. Show abstract Among the present crucial issues in UML Modeling, one of the most common is about the fusion of similar models coming from various sources. Several similar models are created in Software Engineering and it is of primary interest to compare them and, when possible, to craft a general model including a specific one, or just identify models that are in fact equivalent. Most present approaches are based on model structure comparison and alignment on strings for attributes and classe names. This contribution evaluates the added value of several combined NLP techniques based on lexical networks, POS tagging, and Dependency Rules application, and how they might improve the fusion of models. Topics: use of NLP techniques in practical applications.
  • A Semi-Automatic TAG Syntactic Tagging Tool for Constructing an Arabic Treebank
    72 syntactic tagging, treebank, arabic language Fériel Ben Fraj, Chiraz Ben Othmane Zribi, Mohamed Ben Ahmed, pages 207 – 212. Show abstract Corpora present a basic informational source for varied NLP applications. Their construction becomes now days necessary. This paper presents a tool created to help syntactic tagging an Arabic Treebank. It is based on an already constructed grammar called ArabTAG which constitutes a representational method of Arabic grammatical rules using TAG formalism. This tagging tool is a node among a set of other pretreatment steps as: morpho-syntactic analysis, grammatical tagging and sentence segmentation. It gets as input a sentence and helps to give it the appropriate syntactic tree in an incremental manner.
  • Looking for new words out there
    149 neologisms, word derivation Filip Graliński, Marcin Walas, pages 213 – 218. Show abstract This paper presents methods for automatic extraction of new lexemes from Web corpora in order to obtain a comprehensive list of Polish words. We present the following methods: Reverse Derivation, Compound Formation, List Extraction, extraction of adjectives from addresses, Polonisation of English words. We proceed to describe the process of correcting errors that arise from the application of automated methods. Quantitative evaluation of the project and presentation of its results are given.
  • It's all about the Trees --- Towards a Hybrid Syntax-Based MT System
    146 Hybrid machine translation, Syntax-based machine translation, Tree Transducer Marcin Junczys-Dowmunt, pages 219 – 226. Show abstract The aim of this paper is to describe the first steps of research towards a hybrid MT system that combines the strengths of rule-based syntactic transfer with recently developed syntax-based statistical translation methods within a unified framework. The similarities of both paradigms concerning the processing of syntactically parsed input trees serve as a basis for this reseach. We focus on the statistical part of the future system and present a syntax-based statistical machine translation system—BONSAI—for Polish-to-French translation. Although BONSAI is still under develepmont, it reaches a translation quality on par with that of a modern phrase-based system. We provide the theoretical background as well as some implementation details and preliminary evaluation results for BONSAI. At the end of this paper we shortly discuss the benefits of a combined approach.
  • Developing a Persian Chunker Using a Hybrid Approach
    115 Chunking, Phrase Segmentation, IOB tagging, Neural networks, Fuzzy C-Mean Clustering Soheila Kiani, Tara Akhavan, Mehrnoush Shamsfard, pages 227 – 233. Show abstract Text segmentation is the process of recognizing boundaries of text constituents, such as sentences, phrases and words. This paper focuses on phrase segmentation also known as chunking. This task has different problems in various natural languages depending on linguistic features and prescribed form of writing. In this paper, we will discuss the problems and solutions especially for the Persian language and present our system for Persian phrase segmentation. Our system exploits a hybrid method for automatic chunking of Persian texts. The method at first exploits a rule-based approach to create a tagged corpus for training a neural network and then uses a multilayer perceptron neural network and Fuzzy C-Means Clustering to chunk new sentences. Experimental results show the average precision of %85.7 for the chunking result.
  • Development and Evaluation of AnHitz, a Prototype of a Basque-Speaking Virtual 3D Expert on Science and Technology
    100 Question Answering, Cross-Lingual Information Retrieval, Machine Translation, Speech Synthesis, Automatic Speech Recognition, Visual Interfaces Igor Leturia, Arantza del Pozo, Kutz Arrieta, Urtza Iturraspe, Kepa Sarasola, Arantza Diaz de Ilarraza, Eva Navas, Igor Odriozola, pages 235 – 242. Show abstract Development and Evaluation of AnHitz, a Prototype of a Basque-Speaking Virtual 3D Expert on Science and TechnologyAbstract—The aim of the AnHitz project, whose participants are research groups with very different backgrounds, is to carry out research on language, speech and visual technologies for Basque. Several resources, tools and applications have been developed in AnHitz, but we have also integrated many of these into a prototype of a 3D virtual expert on science and technology. It includes Question Answering and Cross Lingual Information Retrieval systems in those areas. The interaction with the system is carried out in Basque (the results of the CLIR module that are not in Basque are translated through Machine Translation) and is speech-based (using Speech Synthesis and Automatic Speech Recognition). The prototype has received ample media coverage and has been greatly welcomed by Basque society. The system has been evaluated by 50 users who have completed a total of 300 tests, showing good performance and acceptance.
  • LingURed: Language-Aware Editing Functions Based on NLP Resources
    101 Interactive editing, language awareness, authoring tools Cerstin Mahlow, Michael Piotrowski, pages 243 – 250. Show abstract In this paper we compare the state of the art of language awareness in source code editors and word processors. Language awareness refers to functions operating on the elements and structures of a formal or natural language. Language-aware functions allow users to work with meaningful units, increasing efficiency and reducing errors. While all modern source code editors provide programmers with language-aware functions, similar functions for natural-language editing are almost nonexistent. Writers have to manipulate characters, which makes editing and revising challenging and results in typical errors. We describe the LingURed project, in which we implement language-aware editing functions for German with the goal of supporting experienced writers. Our approach is based on the combination of standard editor functionality and shallow localized natural language processing. Prototypical functions demonstrate the feasibility of the approach. Based on our preliminary experience we discuss requirements for NLP components suitable for use in interactive editing environments.
  • Language Model-Based Sentence Classification for Opinion Question Answering Systems
    150 Language modeling, Opinion question answering, Sentence classification Saeedeh Momtazi, Dietrich Klakow, pages 251 – 255. Show abstract In this paper, we discuss an essential component for classifying opinionative and factual sentences in an opinion question answering system. We propose a language model-based approach with a Bayes classifier. This classification model is used to filter sentence retrieval outputs in order to answer opinionative questions. We used Subjectivity dataset for our experiments and applied different state-of-the-art smoothing methods. The results show that our proposed technique significantly outperforms current standard classification methods including support vector machines. The accuracy is improved from 90.49% to 93.35%.
  • Parsing pregroup grammars in polynomial time.
    94 parsing, pregroups, pregroup grammar Katarzyna Moroz, pages 257 – 264. Show abstract We consider polynomial time recognition algorithm and parsing procedures for pregroup grammars. In particular, we present a cubic parsing algorithm for ambiguous pregroup grammars. It modifies the recognition algorithm of Savateev for categorial grammars based on L ̀. We present a Java application that uses the algorithm for parsing natural language sentences. We apply metarules to keep the lexicon reasonably small.
  • TermPedia for Interactive Document Enrichment: Using Technical Terms to Provide Relevant Contextual Information
    97 term prediction, term sense disambiguation, term definition, document enrichment, and hypertext generation Proscovia Olango, Gerwin Kramer, Gosse Bouma, pages 265 – 272. Show abstract TermPedia is a human language technology (HLT) application for document enrichment that automatically provides definitions for technical terms (TTs). A technical term (TT) may hinder document comprehension if it is introduced without any definition or explanation. In some cases when a term is defined, the definition may contain additional technical terms that instigate a similar problem. This is why we investigated a possibility of providing contextually relevant information for the technical term by linking it to an encyclopedia. In this way, additional information relating to the technical terms shall be readily available and hopefully make documents more comprehensible.
  • An Evaluation of Concept Suggestion Strategies for Professional Multimedia Archives
    99 Information retrieval, multimedia, concepts, ground-truth Marco Palomino, Michael Oakes, Tom Wuytack, pages 273 – 279. Show abstract Choosing the optimal terms to represent a search engine query is not trivial, and may involve an iterative process such as relevance feedback, repeated unaided attempts by the user or the automatic suggestion of additional terms, which the user may select or reject. This is particularly true of a multimedia search engine which searches on concepts as well as user-input terms, since the user is unlikely to be familiar with all the system-known concepts. We propose three concept suggestion strategies: suggestion by normalised textual matching, by semantic similarity, and by the use of a similarity matrix. We have evaluated these three strategies by comparing machine suggestions with the suggestions produced by professional annotators, using the measures of micro- and macro- precision and recall. The semantic similarity strategy outperformed the use of a similarity matrix at a range of thresholds. Normalised textual matching, which is the simplest strategy, performed almost as well as the semantic similarity one on recall-based measures, and even better on precision-based and F-based measures.
  • Real-time unsupervised classification of web documents
    123 web document classification, dynamic set of documents, incremental approach Anthony Sigogne, Matthieu Constant, pages 281 – 286. Show abstract This paper adresses the problem of clustering dynamic collections of web documents. We show an iterative algorithm based on a fine-grained keyword extraction (simple, compound words and proper nouns). Each new document inserted in the collection is either assigned to an existing class containing documents of the same topic, or assigned to a new class. After each step, when necessary, classes are refined using statistical techniques. The implementation of this algorithm was successfully integrated in an application used for Information Intelligence.
  • An Integrated Environment for Management and Exploitation of Linguistic Resources
    107 linguistic resources, integration, sotware tools Ranka Stankovic, Ivan Obradovic, pages 287 – 294. Show abstract In this paper we describe two tools that form an integrated environment which can be successfully used for management and exploitation of linguistic resources. Both the tools and the resources were developed within the University of Belgrade Human Language Technology Group. The tools we describe are WS4LR, a software tool that has been developed and used for solving different tasks within the Group, and a web application named WS4QE, accompanied by several web services, that enables the solution of various tasks via the web. Besides a short description of the linguistic resources for Serbian involved, we also describe how the functions of the WS4LR tool can be used for their maintenance and development, as well as some possibilities for web query expansion offered by the WS4QE web application and the use of these expanded queries. Application of expanded queries is presented in web search, exploitation of aligned text and spatial data retrieval.
  • Ontological Semantics in Modified Categorial Grammar
    110 Ontological Semantics, Type Theory, Categorial Grammar, Logic Programming Bartlomiej Szymczak, pages 295 – 298. Show abstract Categorial Grammar is a well established tool for describing natural language semantics . In the current paper we discuss some of its drawbacks and how it could be extended to overcome them. We use the extended version for deriving ontological semantics from text. A proof-of-concept implementation is also presented.
  • On-line and off-line translation aids for non-native readers
    112 translation aid, parsing, collocation Eric Wehrli, Luka Nerima, Violeta Seretan, Yves Scherrer, pages 299 – 303. Show abstract Twic and TwicPen are reading aid systems for readers of material in foreign languages. Although they include a sentence translation engine, both systems are primarily conceived to give word and expression translation to readers with a basic knowledge of the language they read. Twic has been designed for on-line material and consists of a plug-in for internet browsers communicating with our server. TwicPen offers a similar assistance for readers of printed material. It consists of a hand-held scanner connected to a lap-top (or desk-top) computer running our parsing and translation software. Both systems provide readers a limited number of translations selected on the basis of a linguistic analysis of the whole scanned text fragment (a phrase, part of the sentence, etc.). The use of a morphological and syntactic parser makes it possible (i) to disambiguate to a large extent the word selected by the user (and hence to drastically reduce the noise in the response), and (ii) to handle expressions (compounds, collocations, idioms), often a major source of difficulty for non-native readers. The systems are available for the following language-pairs: English-French, French-English, German-French, German-English, Italian-French, Spanish-French. Several other pairs are under development.
  • Language and Location: Map Annotation Project – A GIS-Based Infrastructure for Linguistics Information Management
    108 linguistic information management, Web-based geographical information system, toponymical analysis, Digital Gazetteer Information Exchange, Yichun Xie, Helen Aristar-Dry, Anthony Aristar, Hunter Lockwood, pages 305 – 311. Show abstract The Language and Location: Map Annotation Project (LL-MAP) has been funded by the US National Science Foundation to build a database of linguistic information integrated into a Web-based geographical information system. LL-MAP embodies several innovative concepts of computational linguistics, such as spatial data engine driven architecture, dynamic joining of linguistic information with related cultural and geographic data, multi-layered and linked visualization, real time online data harvesting, collaborative toolboxes for linguistic studies, quick search of digital gazetteers, and toponymical analysis. This paper will demonstrate these LL-MAP functions and discuss their disciplinary implications in linguistic studies.

9th International Multidisciplinary Conference on e-Commerce and e-Government

  • Implementation of Public e-Procurement in Swedish
    177 public, e-procurement, government authorities, sweden Anne Engström, Åsa Wallström, Esmail Salehi-Sangari, pages 315 – 319. Show abstract An increasing number of organizations in the public sector are beginning to adopt e-procurement, which its benefits (e.g., to reduce costs through increased efficiency in the procurement function) are well known by businesses. The purpose of this paper is to assess the implementation of e-procurement concept within Swedish government authorities during 2001 and 2008. A qualitative research approach was applied, and a longitudinal study was conducted. Data were collected in 2001 and 2008 through structured personal telephone interviews with 15 central government agencies. Results show that the implementation of e-procurement has developed substantially during recent years, but Swedish government authorities have still not yet adopted and utilized e-procurement to its full potential. Benefits and challenges were identified. The implementation and use of e-procurement were also found to have an impact on the buying behavior, i.e., on the buying process, the selection criteria and the buying center.
  • Valuation and Value Creation of Internet Companies
    188 Valuation, Internet, Customer Lifetime Value Pawel Kossecki, pages 321 – 323. Show abstract Author has described selected problems related to valuation and value creation of Internet related companies. Relationships between the brand, loyalty, trust and valuation were researched. The method of valuing companies based on valuation of Customer Lifetime Value was described. Two kinds of the Internet clients are considered: one-time deal clients and oriented to creating relationships with the supplier. Based on this partition, a valuation model is proposed.
  • Voter non-repudiation oriented scheme for the medium scale e-voting protocol
    137 evoting, cryptogarphic protocols, security, non-repudiation Damian Rusinek, Bogdan Ksiezopolski, pages 325 – 330. Show abstract Recently, we have observed the growth of the E-voting cryptographic protocols. The researchers have presented many solutions and extended the list of requirements. With the expandig of the internet the protocols must improve it's safety. The aim of this paper is to deliver an analysis of a new e-voting protocol based on Cetinkaya's DynaVote solution. We have attached new features that improve security requirements and assure non-repudiation of voters that may be necessary in specific voting scenarios. It has been designed so the institution holding the election must have proof pointing out voters who have sent a vote.
  • Technical Factors Influencing Consumer Satisfaction in On-Line Services
    208 Internet, usability, key factors Marcin Sikorski, Jacek Wachowicz, pages 331 – 335. Show abstract This document describes the rules one should follow to prepare the article for the IMCSIT e-proceedings. The abstract may be up to 150 words. This template was converted from one in OpenDocument Format. If you are not able to submit your contribution in OpenDocument format, use this document as a template and follow instructions as close as posiible. Do not modify any fonts, paragraph formatting attributes, etc. Use corresponding styles for text elements. Do not cite references in the abstract. Do not delete the blank line immediately above the abstract; it sets the footnote at the bottom of this column.
  • Spreading Word-of-Mouth about the Brand within Virtual World
    12 digital Word-of-Mouth, virtual worlds Urszula Świerczyńska-Kaczor, pages 337 – 341. Show abstract The article is focused on analysis of the process of spreading the Word-of-Mouth (WOM) about real brands within virtual worlds. The results of presented survey, conducted within Second Life, showed that the process of creation WOM within virtual world is different compared to the traditional market – it does not depend on the strength of social ties between users, but rather differ strongly on the basis of whether the WOM is positive or negative. The survey also indicated that the spreading WOM 'cross boarders' – meaning that all three markets: the virtual world market, on-line web sites and the real market are partly interrelated.

1st International Symposium on Intelligent Mobile Technologies for Social Change

  • Mobile Applications for Informal Economies
    155 Tapsie Giridher, Raksik Kim, Divya Rai, Adam Hanover, Jun Yu, Fatima Zarinni, Christelle Scharff, Anita Wasilewska, Jennifer L. Wong, pages 345 – 352. Show abstract The proliferation of mobile phones across the world, to people of all statures, has provided platform to bring computing resources to the masses. In this paper we present three mobile phone applications designed to aid the businesses and people of informal economies in developing countries. The goal of the applications is to assist in the growth of the economy through financial education and awareness and to assist and further the literacy. Each application is motivated and inspired by the needs of the women at the Saint-Louis Women's Business Center Incubator in Senegal, Africa. We present the motivations, application design and operation, and the lessons learned throughout a year of development.
  • Text Messaging to Authenticate Products through Matching Hidden Codes
    29 text messaging, drugs, authentication, counterfeit Ashifi Gogo, Elsa Garmire, pages 353 – 359. Show abstract Fake, counterfeit, or adulterated products have become a dangerous reality to consumers in developing countries. High value-added products are of particular concern, with pharmaceuticals topping the list, followed by packaged food. The prevalence of mobile phones, even in the poorest communities, and the availability of text-messaging, suggest that they may be used to solve this problem. This paper shows how an innovative system allows any member of the populace in the developing world to authenticate a drug before use by a simple text message over mobile phone. This system has been used to authenticate pharmaceuticals in a prototype demonstration project in Ghana. The prevalence of fake drugs and the willingness of customers to use this system were verified in a study involving a consumer base of eight pharmacies in Accra, Ghana, with almost 1000 responses over a three-month period. The opportunities and challenges to implementing such a system on an international basis will be described. Finally, the proposed technology will be compared with other options, showing why mobile phones may offer the most viable option for solving this vexing problem.
  • Conceptual Content Requirements for a Mobile Online Learning Community for Marginalised Youth
    144 Marginalised; Community; Content; Social Inclusion Ben Lockyer, Jean Johnson, Jonny Dyer, pages 361 – 366. Show abstract European marginalised youth have the potential to be future net contributors to the economy. Providing these disaffected individuals with the skills and competences may act as catalyst for integration. The aim of this research project is to encourage social inclusion and improve the opportunities through a mobile online learning environment. Contemporary mobile technologies are currently under-utilised tools for social inclusion. This paper outlines several methods of data collection, including expert telephone interviews, Internet questionnaires designed for marginalised young people and focus groups containing both marginalised youth and experts. Analysis provided indicative conclusions on the content to be incorporated into the community of practice. The findings revealed the importance of developing young peoples functional literacy, numeracy and ICT skills in order to improve their personal employability. The data indicated that content should be learner-authored to encourage participation.
  • Social Inclusion of Young Marginalised People through Online Mobile Communities
    6 Marginalised youth, mobile phones, social networks, online communities ilse Marschalek, Elisabeth Unterfrauner, Claudia Magdalena Fabian, pages 367 – 373. Show abstract Youth exclusion is widespread and increasing across Europe. Information and communication technology (ICT) has the potential to serve as a gateway to social inclusion. However, computer and internet access of marginalised young people are limited. Alternative methods to approach them through ICT are needed. The interdisciplinary project ComeIn (Online Mobile Communities to facilitate the Social Inclusion of Young Marginalised People – EU FP7) studies and utilises mobile networks as a means for social inclusion. This approach combines the benefits of the online community concept with an inclusive approach, realised through the most abundant device used by marginalised youth in Europe – mobile phones.
  • WishVast: Building Trust and Social Capital using Cellphones
    34 trust, social capital, market information Khanjan Mehta, Ladislaus Semali, pages 375 – 381. Show abstract This paper describes the basic concepts and operation of a cellphone-based social networking system called WishVast. WishVast is an innovation that attempts to harness the pervasiveness of cellphones in developing countries to build trust and optimize resource utilization & supply chains to facilitate people to people trade with the ultimate goal of alleviating poverty.
  • A Model for Teaching Mobile Application Development for Social Changes: Implementation and Lessons Learned in Senegal
    140 Java ME Christelle Scharff, Anita Wasilewska, Jennifer Wong, Mamadou Bousso, Ibrahima Ndiaye, pages 383 – 389. Show abstract Africa is the fastest growing mobile phone market in the world. The portfolio of available mobile phone applications that impact the populations of the continent is however limited in number and scope. Future African graduates will be the main vectors for the development of mobile applications. In this paper we present a model of teaching mobile application development for social changes emphasizing software engineering practices. The innovation is that students develop and deploy applications for people of their local communities. This model has been used successfully in Senegal. Applications for craft workers and young children have been developed. Findings, lessons learned and guidelines for instructors interested in similar initiatives are presented.
  • Developing Template Applications for Social Advancement
    159 Anita Wasilewska, Jennifer Wong, pages 391 – 398. Show abstract There are over 3.5 billion mobile phones in the world and they are proliferating at astounding rates across socio-economic and cultural boundaries. They also provide unprecedented opportunities for enabling social impact and technical activism. To most of the people in informal economies and immigrant communities, the mobile phone is the dominant computing resource which they have access to with limited income to support. In the paper we present a notion of template applications for mobile phones. By developing useful applications as templates for these communities which operate on the limited resources of their existing mobile phone, we gain the benefits of language, community, and country portability and customization. We present the template philosophy and illustrate the concept with two developed template applications and explore their transformation into other application domains.

Workshop on Medical Informatics and Engineering

  • Password Detection via Imagined Wrist Movement in BCI
    205 brain wave, BCI, Password, Handicapped, Security Md Shahnawaz Khan, pages 401 – 404. Show abstract It may be considered a cliché to say that brain is an electrochemical organ; researchers have speculated that a fully functioning brain can generate as much as 10 watts of electrical power. We can actually see these electrical changes in the form of brain waves as shown in an EEG (electroencephalogram). There are four categories of these brainwaves, ranging from the most activity (beta waves) to the least activity (delta waves). The purpose of the paper is to pragmatically assimilate the concept of brain emitting electrical power to perform basic task of password recognition when user “imagines” a hand movement. Such a system could allow a severely physically handicapped person to communicate with his computing surroundings securely. Here the distinction must be made between physically and mentally handicapped. A physically disabled person who has no control over his motor responses but does have control of his thoughts could use the system effectively.
  • Multifractal estimators of short-time autonomic control of the heart rate
    55 times series analysis, multifractal Danuta Makowiec, Ralaf Galaska, Andrzej Rynkiewicz, Joanna Wdowczyk-Szulc, pages 405 – 411. Show abstract Understanding of real world phenomena needs to incorporate the fact that observations on different scales each carry essential information. Multifractal formalism is tested if it can work as a robust estimator of monofractal properties when scaling interval is consistent with low-frequency (LF) band of power spectral analysis used in estimates of heart rate variability. Tests with fractional Brownian motions are performed to validate two popular multifractal methods: Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima (WTMM) and Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis. Only WTMM method passes the tests when scaling is limited to LF band. Then WTMM method is applied in analysis of short-time control processes driving the heart rate. The significant difference is found between multifractal spectra describing healthy hearts and hearts suffering from left ventricle systolic dysfunction.
  • Localization of cancerous changes in images of breast tissue
    201 image segmentation, Otsu's binarization, breast cancer, automatic knowledge acquisition Urszula Markowska-Kaczmar, Kazimierz Orzechowski , Norbert Kosmal, Piotr Orzechowski, Pawel Iwaszko, pages 413 – 417. Show abstract This paper presents the method of cancer localization in the breast tissue digital images. The method is implemented and tested in order to be included in the image analysis system which aim is to support a surgeon in interoperative probe of pathological areas in a breast tissue. In future it will be supplemented with information about cancerous areas acquired from dielectric maps. The idea of the whole system is described in the paper. Next, the method of cancer localization in the breast tissue digital images is presented. This method enables a detection of the cancerous changes on the basis of Otsu's binarization method and the saturation information from a breast tissue image. It is worth mentioning that after small changes this method can be used to segmentate images due to more complex criteria.
  • Avascular Area Detection in Nailfold Capillary Images
    166 capillary image analysis, avascular areas detection Mariusz Paradowski, Halina Kwasnicka, Krzysztof Borysewicz, pages 419 – 424. Show abstract Automation of nailfold capillary image analysis is a new research idea. There are many important aspects of the capillary image analysis: capillary thickness, shape, distribution and density. We focus on two last aspects—distribution and density of capillaries. The paper presents an approach to avascular areas detection. An avascular area on the image is an area with capillary loss. It is an important medical sign. Capillary loss is one of the most characteristic features of systemic sclerosis. Vascular abnormalities observed in nailfold capillaries appear earlier in the course of the disease than at other sites. The proposed approach uses a variety of pattern recognition techniques, including: histogram analysis and classification.
  • Feature Selection in Parkinson’s Disease: A Rough Sets Approach
    142 Computational medicine, Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism disorder, reducts, and rough sets. Kenneth Revett, Florin Gorunescu, Abdel-Badeeh Salem, pages 425 – 428. Show abstract Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder with a long time course and a significant prevalence, which increases significantly with age. Although the etiology is currently unknown, the disease presents with neurodegeneration of regions of the basal ganglia. The onset occurs later in life, and the disease progresses slowly. The disease is diagnosed clinically, requiring the identification of several factors such as distal resting tremor, rigidity, and bradykinesia. The common thread throughout the range of symptoms is motor dysfunction, and recent reports have focused on dysphonia, the impairment in voice production as a diagnostic measure. In this paper, a number of features associated with speech have been collected through clinical studies from both healthy and people with Parkinson's (PWP) and analysed in order to determine if one or more of them can be used to diagnose PWP. The feature set is analysed using the rough sets paradigm, which maps feature vectors associated with objects onto decision classes. The results from applying rough sets is a set of rules that map features via rules into a decision support system – performing classification of objects. The results fom this study indicate that a subset of typical voice derived features is adequate to differentiate healthy from PWP with 100% accuracy. These result are important in that they imply that a diagnosis can be automated and performed remotely. This work will be extended to determine if this approach can be utilsed with the same effectiveness for the diagnosis of Parkinsonism disorders – a collection—diseases with Parkinson's like symptoms.
  • Machine Learning in Electrocardiogram Diagnosis
    10 Heart disease, Electrocardiogram, Classification, Machine learning. Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem, Kenneth Revett, El-Sayed A. El-Dahshan, pages 429 – 433. Show abstract The electrocardiogram (ECG) is a measure of the electrical activity of the heart. Since its introduction in 1887 by Waller, it has been used as a clinical tool for evaluating heart function. A number of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (arrhythmia, atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular (AV) dysfunctions, and coronary arterial disease, etc.) can be detected non-invasively using ECG monitoring devices. With the advent of modern signal processing and machine learning techniques, the diagnostic power of the ECG has expanded exponentially. The principal reason for this is the expanded set of features that are typically extracted from the ECG time series. The enhanced feature space provides a wide range of attributes that can be employed in a variety of machine learning techniques, with the goal of providing tools to assist in CVD classification. This paper summarizes some of the principle machine learning approaches to ECG classification, evaluating them in terms of the features they employ, the type(s) of CVD(s) to which they are applied, and their classification accuracy.
  • Three-Dimensional Model Reconstruction for Cleft Lip and Palate Surgery
    42 Reconstruction, Calibration, Cleft lip and palate, Le Fort I, Spatial transformation-calibration and modeling. Chun-Fu Wang, Shu-Yen Wan, pages 435 – 440. Show abstract In craniofacial rectification process, most physi­cians conduct surgical planning through the patient’s two-di­mensional cephalometry. Three-dimensional models, however, can present more reliable and instructional results, and can help evaluate craniofacial features from different angles and curve surfaces. This study focuses on reconstruction and adjust­ment of the three-dimensional model for patients with cleft lips and palate, and to establish soft-to-hard tissue relativity model in Le Fort I maxillary osteotomy. We proposed the spatial transformation-calibration and modeling (STCM) method to predict change of soft tissues after Le Fort I maxillary osteoto­my. The preliminary case studies were done by using two data sets to help the physicians and the patients further their under­standing of current conditions and approximate profiles after the forthcoming surgical operations

2nd International Symposium on Multimedia – Applications and Processing

  • A Concept of Usability Assessment for User-Centered Multimedia Applications
    70 multimedia, usability, assessment, quality, attentiveness Milan Bjelica, Nikola Teslić, pages 443 – 450. Show abstract User-centered activities related to multimedia include production and organization of multimedia content, filing, retrieval, sharing and multimedia communications. Today, there is a growing body of development teams and companies, that work to enable users to perform these activities in various technological ways. Integrating media functions into handheld devices, mobile phones, set-top boxes, and different “wearable” consumer electronics products, makes users affected in different ways. This paper emphasizes the effects of multimedia applications, which are always on users’ disposal, on users’ habits and their regular activities. We argue that application usability is inversely proportional to its usage interference with regular activities of people as users. We introduce novel metrics to capture the amount of this interference, and likewise introduce a measure for multimedia software usability, contributing to software usability assessment processes (SQA).
  • Lip movement and gesture recognition for a multimodal human-computer interface
    67 human-computer interface, image processing, artificial neural network, lip gesture recognition Piotr Dalka, Andrzej Czyzewski, pages 451 – 455. Show abstract Lip movement and gesture recognition for a multimodal human-computer interfaceAbstract—This paper presents an algorithm for lip movement tracking and lip gesture recognition for the purpose of the mul­timodal human-computer interface (HCI) called LipMouse. This solution allows a user to work on a computer using move­ment and gesture made by his/her mouths only and is especially useful for severely disabled and paralyzed people. User face im­ages are captured with a standard webcam. Face detection is based on a cascade of boosted classifiers using Haar-like fea­tures. A mouth region is located in the lower part of the face re­gion and is used to track lip movements. Three lip gestures are recognized: mouth opening, sticking out the tongue and making the mouth into an „O” shape. Lip gesture recognition is per­formed by an artificial neural network and utilizes an accurate lip shape obtained by the means of lip image segmentation using fuzzy clustering.
  • Applying Speech and Language Technology to Foreign Language Education
    92 Educational multimedia, language, education, databases, multimedia tools Grażyna Demenko, Natalia Cylwik, Agnieszka Wagner, pages 457 – 462. Show abstract Applying Speech and Language Technology to Foreign Language Education Abstract—In recent years modern techniques involving speech processing have been gaining increasing interest among researchers and companies involved in the integration of new technologies into second language (L2) tutoring systems. At the same time, pronunciation and prosody have finally gained due attention among L2 teachers and learners. The paper describes technical and linguistic specifications for the EURONOUNCE project whose aim is to create software which will integrate non-native speech analysis and recognition with a primary goal of detecting L2 learners’ pronunciation and prosodic errors and offering multimodal feedback. The software is aimed at specific language pairs, namely Polish, Russian, Czech and Slovak learners of German and vice versa. Beside information concerning the collection, structure and annotation of the multilingual speech corpora the article outlines the feedback system as well as the Pitch Line program which can be implemented in the prosody training module of the Euronounce tutoring system.
  • An Object-Oriented Approach for Image Processing and Semantic Query based on Content
    64 image segmentation, image ontology, object oriented native query, semantic retrieval Eugen Ganea, Marius Brezovan, pages 463 – 469. Show abstract This paper presents a new method for image retrieval considering the information extracted from the image through the segmentation process and the semantic interpretation of this information. We constructed an image ontology for describing the image contents from the independent domain. Using a XML processor we translated the ontology from the XML format to a hierarchy of classes. The instances of the ontology together with the objects, corresponding to the low level features extracted from the images, are stored in an object oriented database. The object oriented native query system is used for the retrieval of the images from the database. Our technique, which combines the visual feature descriptors, has a good time complexity and the experimental results on the image datasets show that the performance of the method is robust. The experiments showed that the retrieval can be conducted with good results regardless of the area from where the images come.
  • Recursive algorithms content search in multimedia databases with endoscopic images
    91 recursive, algoritm, contetnt, multimedia, database, endoscopic Dan Garaiman, Daniela Garaiman, pages 471 – 474. Show abstract Recursive algorithms content search in multimedia databases with endoscopic imagesAbstract - This is a comparative study for recursive algorithms in two content search steps in multimedia databases with endoscopic images. The performance of the search has been measured according to four parameters: reapel, precision, the quality of retrieval and the cost of retrieval. The algorithms are based two methods of deciding the similarities between the models of images: Minkowsky distance and correlated measure Pearson. The models of representing the images in multimedia data base used here are: the normalized color histogram and texture or granulation. The data base which contained the models is indexed according to a linier cluster type. The color space of the images are RGB reduced to 125 and 256 colors and HSV reduced to 162 and 256 colors. The study was realized in a data base containing 310 images grouped in 30 categories. The results are presented both in tables and graphs.
  • Recording/Archiving in IBM Lotus Sametime based Collaborative Environment
    71 Collaborative Computing, Video Conferencing, Video Archiving, Video Streaming Sunil John, Sorin Ciolofan, Cheryl Harding, Peter Westerink, pages 475 – 479. Show abstract Archiving video conferences is an important feature that allows storing conferences for later playback or for any other possible usage. This part of videoconferencing has never been an active area for most conferencing solutions. Many aspects of archiving conferencing solutions, including application sharing as well as document sharing among the participants, are not properly considered. In this paper we discuss IBM Streaming Engine based archiving solution. This recording and archiving facility leverages IBM Sametime collaborative conferencing solution. Apart from the discussion on the archiving facilities, a brief description of IBM Streaming Engine as well as its features is presented.
  • An Audiovisual Virtual Interface
    63 Synthesizers, Human-Computer Interaction, Information Design, Virtual Environments. Evangelos Kapros, Konstantinos Raptis, pages 481 – 485. Show abstract State-of-the-art synthesizers provide numerous controllers through which the user may create a great variety of sounds. The real-time control of so many parameters though, is often problematic for the user. The goal of our work has been to study the physical and remote control of such audial parameters. For this purpose, a system was developed that processes video input and recognizes movements of the user’s body parts (movement of hands, head etc.) and translates them as change in some audial parameters of an electronic music instrument (tone, cutoff, etc.). Also, basic techniques of digital audio synthesis were studied and a prototype synthesizer was developed that is controlled physically and remotely. The study didn’t limit itself in technical details, but contained study of the human psyche and cognition, as much for the audial, as also for the video part of the implementation of the system.
  • Collusion-resistant Fingerprints Based on the Use of Superimposed Codes in Real Vector Spaces
    7 Digital fingerprints, collusion attacks, superimposed codes, sphere decoding algorithm Valery Korzhik, Anton Ushmotkin, Artem Razumov, Guillermo Morales-Luna, Irina Marakova-Begoc, pages 487 – 491. Show abstract In this work we propose the use of random superimposed codes as sequences for collusion-resistant fingerprints. This approach seems to be more suitable in comparison with the use of some other regular sequences (as WBE-sequences) against watermark removal attacks. Sphere decoding algorithm is used for tracing traitors. The performance evaluation of the proposed method is presented. Simulation results show a good efficiency of the proposed codes.
  • Computer based system for strabismus and amblyopia therapy
    69 amblyopia, strabismus, stereoscopic vision Lukasz Kosikowski, Andrzej Czyzewski, pages 493 – 496. Show abstract Computer Based System for Strabismus and Amblyopia Therapy Abstract—Development of the computer based system for strabismus and amblyopia therapy is discussed in the paper. In the case of amblyopia or 'lazy-eye' syndrome, the therapy is typically conducted in two ways: by wearing a patch over the non-amblyopic eye for several hours per day or blurring the vision in the good eye with penalizing drops or with extra power in the glasses. The disadvantage of this types of therapy is the lack of binocular vision. The proposed approach retains binocular vision. Parameters corresponded to strabismus can be measured much faster using the described system. Another advantage is that therapy may take place at user's home, without time-consuming visits to the clinic.
  • A New Method of Audio-Visual Correlation Analysis
    90 gaze-tracking, audio-visual correlation Bartosz Kunka, Bozena Kostek, pages 497 – 502. Show abstract This paper presents a new methodology of conducting the audio-visual correlation analysis employing the gaze tracking system. Interaction between two perceptual modalities, seeing and hearing, their interaction and mutual reinforcement in a complex relationship was a subject of many research studies. Earlier stage of the carried out experiments at the Multimedia Systems Department (MSD) showed that there exists a relationship between perception of video presented in the screen and accompanying audio signals, both stereo and spatial. These results were based on subjective tests. Applying the gaze tracking system to the subjective domain may be a step towards objectivization of results obtained during such tests. In the paper, first a short review of audio-visual correlation examination methods is presented. Then, a gaze tracking system engineered at the MSD is shortly presented. The system calibration is also shown. Assumptions of the preliminary experiments are outlined, and the realization of some preliminary tests is described. Conclusions concerning the objective methodology of audio-visual correlation analysis proposed are also included.
  • A Spatial Database Approach to Virtual Worlds Systems
    24 Spatial Database, Relational Database, Virtual Worlds, User Interaction Ovidiu Parvu, Ionel Jian, pages 503 – 507. Show abstract The rapid pace of computer technology evolution makes web applications suitable for new approaches in taking steps towards a ‘more’ natural interaction between users of basic online social networking services. One of the properties of “today’s web” is the ease by which people develop online applications. This paper focuses on the possibility to use spatial database management systems as the building blocks for virtual world like applications facilitating the development of immersive systems for small developers. We propose a model for such an application, the role of the spatial database and elements that should be taken into consideration in the development process. We underline the advantages and disadvantages of using spatial databases for these systems.
  • 3D Object Implementation on Bicycling at UI Virtual Reality Application Based on 3D-GamesStudio
    35 virtual reality, stereoscopic vision , 3D wireless glasses , Lite-C, 3DGamesStudio Riri Fitri Sari , Anna Gianty, Citra Parameswari, Prima Dewi Purnamasari, pages 509 – 515. Show abstract In this work, we present the real world elements with the graphics that imitate the real world such as bicycle movement, camera perceptions, and object collision handling to other entities such as wall, tree, or building. The environment includes bicycle track, trees and obstacles in the pathways. This application is subsequently tested by the users in terms of the general object condition, user’s respond to the virtual reality environment and the future development.
  • A Multimedia Database Server for information storage and
    74 multimedia; database server; image data type Cosmin Stoica Spahiu, pages 517 – 522. Show abstract The paper presents an original software tool for creating and querying medium sized image collections. The software tool includes a server for a relational multi-user MMDBMS that uses traditional data types (integer, double, char, varchar) and a complex data type, called image. This type is used for storing the image and the extracted information regarding the size and type of the image, color and texture characteristics. An element of originality for this software is the content based retrieval module that allows the user to build content based visual queries to the image level. The color information is represented by the color histograms automatically extracted from the image. The software uses HSV color space, quantized to 166 colors. The dissimilitude between images is calculated using one of the following metrics: Euclidian metrics, histogram intersection or a combination of them. One of the advantages of this tool is that it has a low cost and it is easy to maintain, comparing to other similar database servers.
  • Investigations using the Rational Unified Process (RUP) Diagrams for Software Process Modeling
    50 Rational Unified Process (RUP) proces modeling, Software Process Modeling, UML Roxana-Elena Tudoroiu, Vladimir Cretu, Joey Paquet, pages 523 – 530. Show abstract In this paper we present the strategy of RUP process modeling by using various forms of UML activity dia­gram representations. Also we identify several deficiencies in this representation of the process. We have tried come up with a better solution so we have developed a new version of the RUP modeling representation of the business modeling, requirement, analysis and design, implementation, test, and deployment dis­cipline diagrams using the diagramming technique called RAD. We then have analyzed this alternate representation and extend­ed the RAD notation to include artifacts flow. We have named this extension of RAD, XRAD. We then have used XRAD to rep­resent the above mentioned disciplines of the RUP. This pro­posed version will be particularly useful to process designers, who create the drafts of the process, but also to actual develop­ers who implement the process. It is a useful tool to create sim­ple diagrams that will look familiar to all process actors. The novelty of our modeling strategy consists of the development of several role activity diagrams (RAD) for the Business Modeling, Requirement Analysis and Design, Implementation, Test and Deployment disciplines, as an element of originality. Each RAD diagram is developed in two different versions in order to im­prove their structure and readability. The development of a new version for Business Modeling Requirements, Analysis and De­sign, Implementation, Test and Deployment disciplines, called XRAD, as a combination of the second version and the artifacts, which make them more attractive, expressive, and compact than original versions and represent another remarkable result of our research.
  • The Neural Simulator of the Pollution Factors Impact on the Quality of the Water inside the Romanian Harbour of Black Sea
    49 neural network model, Levenberg-Marquardt back-propagation algorithm Nicolae Tudoroiu, Gabriela Neacsu, Nicolae Ilias, Vladimir Cretu, Roxana-Elena Tudoroiu, pages 531 – 538. Show abstract Romanian Harbour of Black Sea Abstract—The aim of this research is to identify and investi­gate the pollution sources inside the Romanian harbor of Black Sea from Constanta, by monitoring the quality water parame­ters. Furthermore we will try to disseminate the information collected and we will propose adequate actions to prevent the continuous degradation of the environment. Several sampling sites were established around the Port zone and analyses were carried monthly. Physical and chemical indicators of the water quality, nutrients compounds, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), petro­leum/hydrocarbons pollution indicators, Salinity, Sulfides, Cu, Cr and Fe are the monitored quality parameters. The values of quality-monitored parameters are variable in quasi-large ranges, depending on the position of the sampling sites. A direct correlation between these indicators can be done. Water pollu­tion causes loss of biomass, affecting some organisms until they disappear and also blooms of phytoplankton destroying the ecosystems, due to the loss of oxygen from the water. The most important measures to remediate the area were building dams, cleaning residual water, building areas of protected water, and building special places to collect the residues, to prevent direct discharge in the surface water. In our research we try to make an interesting presentation of the neural simulation model of the wide database concerning the water pollution degree inside of Constanta port strategic location, and based on this, to pre­dict the future results.
  • The Neural Simulator of the Pollution Factors Impact on the Quality of the Air along the Romanian Coast of Black Sea
    48 neural simulator, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Back-propagation algorithm Nicolae Tudoroiu, Gabriela Neacsu, Nicolae Ilias, Vladimir Cretu, Daniel Curiac, pages 539 – 546. Show abstract The aim of this research is to identify and investi­gate the pollution sources along the Romanian coast of Black Sea, especially in Constanta neighbourhood, by monitoring the quality air parameters. Furthermore we will try to disseminate the information collected and we will propose adequate actions to prevent the continuous degradation of the environment. Sev­eral sampling sites were established around and inside the Con­stanta city resort, and analyses were carried monthly. Physical and chemical parameters of the air quality, such as tempera­ture, wind speed, Carbon Dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), Ni­trogen Oxide, ozone, water vapours concentrations are moni­tored “in situ” in different sampling sites of the Romanian Black Sea coast.. The values of quality-monitored parameters are variable in quasi-large ranges, depending on the position of the sampling sites. A direct correlation between these indicators can be done. Air pollution causes the “greenhouse effect“ with a high impact on the live and fauna, destroying the Black Sea ecosystems. The most important measures to remediate the area were more efficient filters installation in the industrial area, cleaning residual water, and building special places to collect the residues, to prevent direct discharge in the surface water. In our research we try to make an interesting presentation of the neural simulation model of the wide database concerning the air pollution degree inside Constanta resort city, and based on this, to predict the future results.
  • Character-Angle based Video Annotation
    129 video annotation; basketball zone-defense detection; character-angle Aihua Zheng, Jixin Ma, Bin Luo, Miltos Pretridis, Jin Tang, pages 547 – 552. Show abstract A video annotation system includes clips organization, feature description and pattern determination. This paper aims to present a system for basketball zone-defence detection. Particularly, a character-angle based descriptor for feature description is proposed. The well-performed experimental results in basketball zone-defence detection demonstrate that it is robust for both simulations and real-life cases, with less sensitivity to the distribution caused by local translation of subprime defenders. Such a framework can be easily applied to other team-work sports.

International Conference on Principles of Information Technology and Applications

  • Collecting program execution statistics with Qemu processor emulator
    52 dynamic code translation, Qemu, software fault injection Sławomir Chyłek, pages 555 – 558. Show abstract This paper addresses the problem of improving efficiency of software implemented fault injection experiments. It is especially focused on the problem of collecting program execution statistics. The classical SWIFI depends on operating system's debugging API. We introduce a new method which is based on Qemu—a versatile processor emulator. By altering Qemu's dynamic code translation procedure we are able to collect execution statistics significantly faster than in the classical solutions. The achieved performance gain is illustrated with experimental results.
  • An Experimental Case Study to Applying Mutation Analysis for SQL Queries
    178 mutation testing, SQL, case study Anna Derezinska, pages 559 – 566. Show abstract This paper is devoted to evaluation of mutation operators of SQL queries that retrieve information from a database. The operators mimic various faults of the queries that are syntactically correct but produce results unintended by the developers. A case study applies the SQL mutation operators to typical queries commonly used in programs cooperating with a real database implemented in an insurance company. The experimental results of the mutation testing and performance measures are provided. Usability of operators was validated comparing distribution of generated mutants, ability to detect mutants by tests and execution times of mutants.
  • New Multi-Core Intel Xeon Processors help design Energy Efficient Solution for High Performance Computing
    32 High Performance Computing, HPC, multicore, CPU, microprocessor, x86 Paweł Gepner, David L. Fraser, Michal Filip Kowalik, Rafał Tylman, pages 567 – 571. Show abstract The second generation of Intel® Xeon™ proces­sors based on Core Microarchitecture and 45nm process tech­nology bring not only a new level of performance but also sig­nificant improvement in power characteristics. Continuous performance improvement and power efficiency are the para­digms for most Data Centers today and are also the challenges that will not go away anytime soon. The increasing energy costs have made Data Centers even more energy conscious, especial­ly those with older facilities that lack the power and thermal capacity to expand and keep pace with the growing needs and requirements. This paper will describe how far the industry has progressed and evaluates some of the challenges we are facing with new 45 nm Intel Xeon processors and some of the solu­tions that have been developed.
  • Comparing EM3: Predelivery Maintenance Model with its Industrial Correspondence
    136 Ahmad Salman Khan, Mira Kajko-Mattsson, Tommy Tyrberg, pages 573 – 582. Show abstract To successfully conduct postdelivery maintenance, organizations must be actively involved in the predelivery maintenance phase. For this, they need a predelivery maintenance process model. Right now, there are only two such models and they are still in their infancy. In this paper, we compare one of them, the EM3 Predelivery/Prerelease model, to its corresponding predelivery process at AMIS Software. The comparison has helped us evaluate the model in an industrial context and extend it with new activities.
  • Forming a Connected Network in a Grid by Asynchronous and Oblivious Robots
    209 Connected network; Autonomous robots; Discrete algorithms; Distributed systems Adrian Kosowski, Ichiro Suzuki, Pawel Zylinski, pages 583 – 588. Show abstract Consider an orthogonal grid of streets and avenues in a Manhattan-like city populated by stationary sensor modules at some crossings and mobile robots that can serve as relays of information that the modules exchange. Both module-module and module-robot communication is limited to a straight line of sight along a row or a column of the grid. We present a number of distributed algorithms for the robots to establish a connected network of a given set S of modules by moving to suitable locations in the grid and serving as relays. It is shown that the number of robots required to connect the modules depends not only on the number c of connected components in the visibility graph of S, but also on the degree of symmetry in S. In most cases, our algorithms use the worst case optimal number of robots for a given c.
  • Visual data flow languages with action systems
    130 visual data flow programming languages, formal methods, verification Maija Marttila-Kontio, Mauno Rönkkö, Pekka Toivanen, pages 589 – 594. Show abstract Due to recent advances in multicore processor technology, parallel computing has received much attention lately. In this context, the need for a natural parallel execution paradigm makes a visual data flow programming language (VDFL) attractive. VDFL programs are mainly used in measurement and controlling tasks where accuracy and robustness of the system are fundamental. The verification of these systems are, however, difficult and testing processes cannot fully expose all the potential errors. This problem is typically tackled with formal methods, including formal specification, model-checking, and refinement. In this paper, as the main contribution, we formalize the basic concepts of VDFL with action systems. We show that there is a natural mapping between VDFL and action systems that supports future work on reasoning and refinement of VDFL programs using action systems.
  • Partial Jacobian Computation in the Domain-specific Program Transformation System ADiCape
    44 Sparsity, Automatic Differentiation Monika Petera, Michael Luelfesmann, H. Martin Buecker, pages 595 – 599. Show abstract Sensitivities of functions given in the form of computer models are crucial in various areas of computational science and engineering. We consider computer models written in CapeML, a domain-specific XML-based language used in process engineering. Rather than computing all nonzero entries of a sparse Jacobian matrix, we are interested in obtaining only a subset of these entries. For the solution of this problem called partial Jacobian computation, we transform a CapeML model of an industrial distillation column using the automatic differentiation system ADiCape.
  • Passive Construction of Diagnostic Decision Models: An Empirical Evaluation
    88 Diagnosis, model building, application, Bayesian networks Parot Ratnapinda, Marek Druzdzel, pages 601 – 607. Show abstract Bayesian networks have proven their value in solving complex diagnostic problems. The main bottleneck in applying Bayesian networks to diagnosis is model construction. In our earlier work , we proposed passive construction of diagnostic models based on observation of diagnosticians solving diagnostic cases. This idea has never been tested in practice. In this paper, we describe an experiment that tests an interactive prototype system called Marilyn on implementation of a system based on passive construction of diagnostic model, by inputting four hundred help desk cases collected at the University of Pittsburgh campus computing lab. We show that while the system's diagnostic accuracy continues to increase with the number of cases, it reaches very reasonable levels after merely tens of cases.
  • MD Wizard – a Model-Driven Framework for Wizard-Based Modeling Guidance in UML Tools
    5 Model-driven engineering, SPEM, Guidance, MagicDraw, MD Wizard Darius Silingas, Saulius Pavalkis, Aurelijus Morkevicius, pages 609 – 615. Show abstract The paper presents MD Wizard—a new model-driven framework, which supports wizard-based modeling guidance in UML tools. The framework uses Software Process Engineering Metamodel (SPEM) profile and extends it with stereotypes enabling wizard execution in the modeling environment. It allows the end-users of a modeling tool to define the activity diagram with the sequence of modeling tasks, and execute it as a wizard. It applies a model-driven development approach for enabling the modelers to extend the standard UML modeling environment. MD Wizard prototype has been implemented as a MagicDraw plug-in. Two applications of the proposed framework—the processes for use case modeling and robustness analysis—are presented.

Workshop on Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks

  • An Agent Framework to Support Sensor Networks’ Setup and Adaptation
    76 Middleware for Wireless Sensor Network; Autonomous Agents; Edison Pignaton de Freitas, Tales Heimfarth, Armando Morado Ferreira, Flávio Rech Wagner, Carlos Eduardo Pereira, pages 619 – 626. Show abstract Sensor networks are being used in several emerging applications not even imagined some years ago due to advances in sensing, computing, and communication techniques. However, these advances also pose various challenges that must be faced. One important challenge is related to the autonomous capability needed to setup and adapt the networks, which decentralizes the control of the network, saving communication and energy resources. Middleware technology helps in addressing this kind of problem, but there is still a need for additional solutions, particularly considering dynamic changes in users` requirements and operation conditions. This paper presents an agent-based framework acting as an integral part of a middleware to support autonomous setup and adaptation of sensor networks. It adds interoperability among heterogeneous nodes in the network, by means of autonomous behavior and reasoning. These features also address the needs for system setup and adaptations in the network, reducing the communication overhead and decentralizing the decision making mechanism. Additionally, preliminary results are also presented.
  • CAR-TO-CAR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
    197 car-to-car, car-to-road infrastructure. communication system Juraj Miček, Ján Kapitulík, pages 627 – 631. Show abstract In near future number of cars with ability to communicate with each other as well as road infrastructure will be growing on European roads. The article describes problematic of ad-hoc wireless car-to-car and car-to-road infrastructure communication system.

2nd Workshop on Advances in Programming Languages

  • Developing DSLs using combinators. A design pattern
    8 DSLs, combinators, design patterns Pablo Andrés Barrientos, Pablo Ernesto Martínez López, pages 635 – 642. Show abstract The development of domain-specific languages (DSLs) is considered by many authors as a hard task. To simplify the design of DSLs we describe a design pattern based on the combinators technique, which can also provide guidelines for previous domain analysis phase because it is based on equational reasoning over the domain knowledge. Combinators is a common technique from functional programming to write programs. It was used many times to implement domain-specific embedded languages (DSELs) but that implementation approach is not the only one. In this paper we present the pattern together with the underlying and basic ideas behind it. We also show benefits of using it and illustrate the use of this pattern with some examples.
  • Optimization of Object-Oriented Queries Addressing Large and Small Collections
    25 query optimization, large and small collections, stack-based approach, SBQL, object-oriented database, strong typing Michał Bleja, Krzysztof Stencel, Kazimierz Subieta, pages 643 – 650. Show abstract When a query jointly addresses very large and very small collections it may happen that an iteration caused by a query operator is driven by a large collection and in each cycle it evaluates a subquery that depends on an element of a small collection. For each such element the result returned by the subquery is the same. In effect, such a subquery is unnecessarily evaluated many times. The optimization rewrites such a query to reverse the situation: the loop is to be performed on a small collection and inside each its cycle a subquery addressing a large collection is evaluated. We illustrate the method on comprehensive examples and then present the general rewriting rule. The research follows the Stack-Based Approach to query languages having roots in the semantics of programming languages. The optimization method consists in analyzing of scoping and binding rules for names occurring in queries.
  • On Defining Quality Based Grammar Metrics
    124 grammar metrics, software language engineering, grammar engineering, grammarware Julien Cervelle, Matej Crepinsek, Remi Forax, Tomaz Kosar, Marjan Mernik, Gilles Roussel, pages 651 – 658. Show abstract Grammar metrics have been introduced to measure the quality and the complexity of the formal grammars. The aim of this paper is to explore the meaning of these notions and to experiment, on several grammars of domain specific languages and of general purpose languages, existing grammar metrics together with new metrics based on grammar LR automaton and on the produced language. We discuss the results of this experiment and focus on the comparison between domain specific languages and general purpose languages grammars and on the evolution of the metrics between several versions of the same language.
  • Subtree Matching by Deterministic Pushdown Automata
    98 tree, subtree, pushdown automata Tomas Flouri, Jan Janousek, Borivoj Melichar, pages 659 – 666. Show abstract Subtree matching is an important problem in Computer Science on which a number of tasks, such as mechanical theorem proving, term-rewriting, symbolic computation and nonprocedural programming languages are based on. A systematic approach to the construction of subtree pattern matchers by deterministic pushdown automata, which read subject trees in prefix notation, is presented. The method is analogous to the construction of string pattern matchers: for a given pattern, a nondeterministic pushdown automaton is created and then it is determinised. In addition, it is shown that the size of the resulting deterministic pushdown automata directly corresponds to the size of the existing string pattern matchers based on finite automata.
  • Data driven Executable Language Model
    66 Executable modeling, language models, language architectures,data driven program generation, domain specific languages, model and language semantics Jan Kollar, Peter Vaclavik, Lubomir Wassermann, pages 667 – 674. Show abstract Executable language model driven by data streams is proposed. At the same time, this model is language architecture developed from context-free grammar enriched with communication channels. Four types of formal communication channels and one type of informal communication channel were identified for functional languages, to provide systematic background for human-machine communication. Formal channel positions are determined by a grammar, not by a programmer. Data streams are aproximately as concise as computer machine code but they are semantically equivalent to high-level programs. Using simple example of functional language we present the principle of functional language architecture construction and its driving by data stream. In particular, we show how the program is initially recorded, and how it can be repeatedly generated, either in original or in a modified version. Data streams radically decrease structural complexity of current programs, preserving their semantics, since they are not executed at low-level computer architecture but at high-level language architecture.
  • Influence of domain-specific notation to program understanding
    62 domain-specific languages, general-purpose languages, application libraries, experiment, DOT language Tomaz Kosar, Marjan Mernik, Matej Crepinsek, Pedro Rangel Henriques, Daniela da Cruz, Maria João Varanda Pereira, Nuno Oliveira, pages 675 – 682. Show abstract Application libraries are the most commonly used implementation approach to solve problems in general-purpose languages. Their competitors are domain-specific languages, which can provide notation close to the problem domain. We carried out an empirical study on comparing domain-specific languages and application libraries regarding program understanding. In this paper, one case study is presented. Over 3000 lines of code were studied and more than 86 pages long questionnaires were answered by end-users, answering questions on learning, perceiving and evolving programs written in domain-specific language as well as general-purpose language using application library. In this paper, we present comparison results on end-users' correctness and consumed time. For domain-specific language and application library same problem domain has been used—a well-known open source graph description language, DOT.
  • A Tool for Modeling Form Type Check Constraints
    80 Database design; MDSD; IIS*Case; Check constraints. Ivan Lukovic, Aleksandar Popovic, Jovo Mostic, Sonja Ristic, pages 683 – 690. Show abstract IIS*Case is a software tool that provides infor­mation system modeling and generating executable application prototypes. At the level of platform inde­pen­dent model specifications, IIS*Case provides conceptual mo­deling of database schemas that include specifications of various database constraints, such as domain, not null, key and unique constraints, as well as various kinds of in­clusion dependencies. In the paper, we present new concepts and a tool embedded into IIS*Case, that are aimed to support specification of check constraints. We pre­sent a domain specific language for specifying check constraints and a tool that enables visually oriented de­sign and parsing check constraints.
  • VisualLISA: Visual Programming Environment for Attribute Grammars Specification
    128 Visual Programmin Langugaes, VisualLISA, Attribute Grammars, LISA Nuno Oliveira, Pedro Rangel Henriques, Daniela da Cruz, Maria João Varanda Pereira, pages 691 – 698. Show abstract The benefits of using visual languages and graphical editors are well known. In some specific domain it is really crucial to program with graphical representations, icons, geometric objects, colors and so on. Nowadays it is possible to easily implement a visual language, constructing, automatically, visual editors for it. In this paper we want to emphasize how it is possible to easily specify a huge amount of complex information, associated with an attribute grammar, using graphical objects and a very intuitive modular approach. For that purpose we present a new visual language to specify attribute grammars (called VisualLISA) and we present also a modular approach that uses VisualLISA in an integrated editor to draw attribute grammars.
  • Applying Program Comprehension Techniques to Karel Robot Programs
    60 Domain Specific Languages, Program Comprehension, Karel Nuno Oliveira, Pedro Rangel Henriques, Daniela da Cruz, Maria João Varanda Pereira, Marjan Mernik, Tomaz Kosar, Matej Crepinsek, pages 699 – 706. Show abstract In the context of program understanding, a challenge research topic is to learn how techniques and tools for the comprehension of General-Purpose Languages (GPLs) can be used or adjusted to the understanding of Domain-Specific Languages (DSLs). Being DSLs tailored for the description of problems within a specific domain, it becomes easier to improve these tools with specific visualizations (at a higher abstraction level, closer to the problem level) in order to understand the DSLs programs. In this paper, comprehension techniques will be applied to Karel language. This will allow us to explore the creation of problem domain visualizations for this language and to combine both problem and program domains in order to reach a full understanding of Karel programs.
  • Annotation Based Parser Generator
    86 Computer language, parser generator, abstract syntax, concrete syntax, annotation Jaroslav Porubän, Michal Forgáč, Miroslav Sabo, pages 707 – 714. Show abstract The paper presents innovative parser construction method and parser generator prototype which generates a computer language parser from a set of annotated classes in contrast to classic parser generators which specify concrete syntax of a computer language using BNF notation. In the presented approach a language with textual concrete syntax is defined upon the abstract syntax definition extended with source code annotations. The process of parser implementation is presented on selected concrete computer language – the Simple Arithmetic Language. The paper summarizes results of the studies of implemented parser generator and describes its role in the university courses.
  • MultiProperties
    68 property, collection, field, state, object oriented Koen Vanderkimpen, Eric Steegmans, pages 715 – 721. Show abstract Properties, which occur in C#, provide good support for features of objects with singular multiplicity and allow straightforward implementation and use of an object's encapsulated state. If, however, used for features with a higher multiplicity, usually represented by collection objects, they fail to provide a natural approach to proper encapsulation of the one-to-many aspect of such characteristics. Lacking support by powerful concepts, such as properties, makes handling these associations with many-valued multiplicity necesitate much boilerplate code in mainstream programming languages. This makes the implementation of such features tedious and error-prone. In this paper, we introduce multiproperties: properties specifically developed to make implementing one-to-many relationships in object oriented programming languages easier and more robust. Multiproperties make use of operator overloading to access these multivalued features in a simple and natural way. They are aimed at reducing boilerplate code and making encapsulation of an object's data automatic and configurable.

Workshop on Computational Optimization

  • Varible Neighborhood Search for fitting Finte Mixture Model parameters
    131 Expectation Maximization algorithm, Metaheuristic, Variable Neighborhood Search, Maximum Likelihood Estimation, Finite Gaussian Mixture Model and Global Optimization. Adel Bessadok, Pierre Hansen, Abdelwaheb Rebai, pages 725 – 733. Show abstract Finding maximum likelihood parameter values for Finite Mixture Model (FMM) is often done with the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. However the choice of initial values can severely affect the time to attain convergence of the algorithm and its efficiency in finding global maxima. We alleviate this defect by embedding the EM algorithm within the variable Neighborhood Search (VNS) methaheurestic framework. Computational experiment in several problems in literature as well as some larger ones are reported.
  • Malware detection through Machine Learning
    151 Perceptron, Kernel Functions, Malware detection, Computer security Dragos Gavrilut, Mihai Cimpoesu, Dan Anton, Liviu Ciortuz, pages 735 – 741. Show abstract We propose a versatile framework in which one can employ different machine learning algorithms to successfully distinguish between malware files and clean files, while aiming to minimise the number of false positives. In this paper we present the ideas behind our framework by working firstly with cascade one-sided perceptrons and secondly with cascade kernelized one-sided perceptrons. After having been successfully tested on medium-size datasets of malware and clean files, the ideas behind this framework were submitted to a scaling-up process that enable us to work with very large datasets of malware and clean files.
  • Primal-Dual Interior-Point Methods Solver Based on Kernel Functions for Linear Optimization
    18 Kernel function, Interior-point Algorithm, Large-update, Iteration number Mohamed El Ghami, Ivan Ivanov, Trond Steihaug, pages 743 – 749. Show abstract In this paper we present the theory and practical aspects of implementing the path following interior point methods for linear optimization, based on kernel functions. We will investigate the influence of the choice of the kernel function on the computational behavior of the generic primal-dual algorithm for Linear Optimization. We find that the finite kernel function gives the best results for more than 50 % of the tested problems compared to the standard log-barrier method.
  • Algorithms for Designing of Optimized Fixed Broadband Networks
    95 transmission network, ring, tree, optimization Henryk Gierszal, Dominik Kasprzak, Krzysztof Liszyński, Tomasz Piaścik, pages 751 – 758. Show abstract This paper presents the use of graph theory for designing fixed broadband networks with optimized link routes among transmission nodes. The cost function is the total length of links and the number of households covered by a two-layer transmission network. The topology of a backbone network is a ring and the topology of a distribution network is a tree. For designing the backbone network the “travelling salesman problem” is solved. The distribution network is optimized using Prim’s algorithm for the minimum spanning tree. Other solutions, i.e., the dynamic programming, allow to designate other architecture elements of the networks, as well as to obtain a better efficiency of optimization process of the graphs.
  • Computing Artificial Backbones of Hydrogen Atoms in order to Discover Protein Backbones
    56 distance geometry, combinatorial reformulation, protein molecules, hydrogen atoms, branch and prune Carlile Lavor, Antonio Mucherino, Leo Liberti, Nelson Maculan, pages 759 – 764. Show abstract NMR experiments are able to provide some of the distances between pairs of hydrogen atoms in molecular conformations. The problem of finding the coordinates of such atoms is known as the molecular distance geometry problem. This problem can be reformulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and efficiently solved by an exact algorithm. To this purpose, we show how an artificial backbone of hydrogens can be generated that satisfies some assumptions needed for having the combinatorial reformulation. Computational experiments show that the combinatorial approach to this problem is very promising.
  • Particle Swarm Optimization for the Multi Level Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree
    83 Multi Level Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree, particle swarm optimization, NetKeys tree encoding, network topology design Chryssa Papagianni, Chris Pappas, Nikos Lefkaditis, Iakovos Venieris, pages 765 – 770. Show abstract In the presented study Particle Swarm Optimization will be applied on an instance of the Multi Level Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem. Specifically a diversity preservation global variant of the PSO meta-heuristic will be presented. The particular PSO variant includes Gaussian mutation to avoid premature convergence and alternative selection of the flight guide per particle. Obtained results are compared with corresponding evolutionary approaches. Potential tree solutions are encoded/decoded using Network Random Keys. A real world network design case is introduced.
  • New Conception and Algorithm of Allocation Mapping for Processor Arrays Implemented into Multi-Context FPGA Devices
    153 pararell processing, evolutionary algorithm, linear algebra algorithm, FPGA Piotr Ratuszniak, Oleg Maslennikow, pages 771 – 777. Show abstract In the paper authors present new concept of realization of algorithms with regular graphs of information dependencies, in form of systolic arrays realized in multi-context programmable devices. Processor matrix efficiency depends on both allocation and schedule mapping. Authors use evolution algorithms and constraint programming to determine allocation mapping and optimize runtime of set algorithm. Authors compared the runtime of Cholesky's algorithm for banded matrices in which the new concept has been used with ones obtained by use of linear and non-linear allocation mapping for processor matrix.
  • A time-indexed formulation of earliness tardiness scheduling via DC programming and DCA
    145 earliness tardiness scheduling, DC programming, DCA, time-indexed formulation Hoai An Le Thi, Thuan Nguyen Quang, Nguyen Huynh Tuong, Tao Pham Dinh, pages 779 – 784. Show abstract Time-index formulation for the earliness tardiness scheduling problem has received a great attention from many researchers because lower bound obtained by linear relaxation is rather good. Much work is devoted to tackle its upper bound. In this paper, we consider this formulation by additionally proposing a deadline for each job. We also propose an approach based on DC (Difference of Convex functions) programming and DCA (DC Algorithm) to find upper bound efficiently for this problem. The results obtained are promising.